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Population in Peru
 
 
 

General

The population of Peru in 2005 was estimated by the United Nations at 27,947,000, which placed it at number 40 in population among the 193 nations of the world. In 2005, approximately 5% of the population was over 65 years of age, with another 32% of the population under 15 years of age. There were 101 males for every 100 females in the country. According to the UN, the annual population rate of change for 2005-10 was expected to be 1.6%, a rate the government viewed as too high. The projected population for the year 2025 was 35,725,000. The overall population density was 22 per km² (56 per mi²), with some 53% of the inhabitants living in the coastal region; 36% living in the Andean sierra; and 11% living in the eastern rain forest.

The UN estimated that 73% of the population lived in urban areas in 2005, and that urban areas were growing at an annual rate of 1.86%. The capital city, Lima, had a population of 7,899,000 in that year. Other important cities are Trujillo, Arequipa and Chiclayo.

Peru's urban and coastal communities have benefited much more from recent economic growth than rural, Afro-Peruvian, indigenous, and poor populations of the Amazon and mountain regions. The poverty rate has dropped substantially during the last decade but remains stubbornly high at about 30% (more than 55% in rural areas). After remaining almost static for about a decade, Peru's malnutrition rate began falling in 2005, when the government introduced a coordinated strategy focusing on hygiene, sanitation, and clean water. School enrolment has improved, but achievement scores reflect ongoing problems with educational quality. Many poor children temporarily or permanently drop out of school to help support their families. About a quarter to a third of Peruvian children aged 6 to 14 work, often putting in long hours at hazardous mining or construction sites.

Peru was a country of immigration in the 19th and early 20th centuries, but has become a country of emigration in the last few decades. Beginning in the 19th century, Peru brought in Asian contract labourers mainly to work on coastal plantations. Populations of Chinese and Japanese descent – among the largest in Latin America – are economically and culturally influential in Peru today. Peruvian emigration began rising in the 1980s due to an economic crisis and a violent internal conflict, but outflows have stabilised in the last few years as economic conditions have improved. Nonetheless, more than 2 million Peruvians have emigrated in the last decade, principally to the US, Spain and Argentina.

Overview

Population : 30,147,935 (July 2014 est.)
Age structure : 0-14 years: 27.3% (male 4,184,330/female 4,040,096)

15-24 years: 19.2% (male 2,894,168/female 2,889,409)

25-54 years: 39.4% (male 5,715,542/female 6,161,540)

55-64 years: 6.9% (male 1,071,688/female 1,125,100)

65 years and over: 6.7% (male 979,854/female 1,086,208) (2014 est.)
Dependency ratios   total dependency ratio: 54.2 %

youth dependency ratio: 44.4 %

elderly dependency ratio: 9.9 %

potential support ratio: 10.1 (2013)
Median age : total: 27 years

male: 26.3 years

female: 27.7 years (2014 est.)
Population growth rate : 0.99% (2014 est.)
Birth rate : 18.57 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Death rate : 5.99 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Net migration rate : -2.69 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Urbanisation : urban population: 77% of total population (2010)

rate of urbanisation: 1.6% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major cities - population : Lima (capital) 8.769 million; Arequipa 778,000 (2009)
Sex ratio : at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 0.93 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.9 male(s)/female

total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2014 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth : 22.3

note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2012 est.)
Maternal mortality rate : 67 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Infant mortality rate : total: 20.21 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 22.44 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 17.88 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)
Life expectancy at birth : total population: 73.23 years

male: 71.23 years

female: 75.33 years (2014 est.)
Total fertility rate : 2.22 children born/woman (2014 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate : 68.9% (2011)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate : 0.4% (2012 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS : 75,500 (2012 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths : 4,100 (2012 est.)
Health expenditures : 4.8% of GDP (2011)
Physicians density : 0.92 physicians/1,000 population (2009)
Hospital bed density : 1.5 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Drinking water source : improved:

urban: 90.9% of population

rural: 66.1% of population

total: 85.3% of population

unimproved:

urban: 9.1% of population

rural: 33.9% of population

total: 14.7% of population (2011 est.)
Sanitation facility access : improved:

urban: 81.3% of population

rural: 38.4% of population

total: 71.6% of population

unimproved:

urban: 18.7% of population

rural: 61.6% of population

total: 28.4% of population (2011 est.)
Major infectious diseases : degree of risk: very high

food or water-borne diseases: bacterial diarrhoea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever

vector-borne disease: dengue fever, malaria, and Bartonellosis (Oroya fever) (2013)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate : 15.7% (2008)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight : 4.5% (2008)
Nationality : noun: Peruvian(s)

adjective: Peruvian
Ethnic groups : Amerindian 45%, mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 37%, white 15%, black, Japanese, Chinese, and other 3%
Religions : Roman Catholic 81.3%, Evangelical 12.5%, other 3.3%, unspecified or none 2.9% (2007 Census)
Languages : Spanish (official) 84.1%, Quechua (official) 13%, Aymara (official) 1.7%, Ashaninka 0.3%, other native languages (includes a large number of minor Amazonian languages) 0.7%, other 0.2% (2007 Census)
Literacy : definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 89.6%

male: 94.9%

female: 84.6% (2007 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education) : total: 13 years

male: 13 years

female: 13 years (2010)
Education expenditures : 2.8% of GDP (2012)
Child labour - children ages 5-14 : total number: 2,545,855

percentage: 34 %

note: data represents children ages 5-17 (2007 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 : total: 9.5%

male: 9.4%

female: 9.7% (2011)

 

 

 
 

 



 


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