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Government in Peru


Peru, as established by the 1993 Constitution, is a presidential representative democratic republic. The Peruvian government is directly elected, and voting is compulsory for all citizens aged 18 to 70.

The President of Peru, officially the President of the Republic (Presidente de la República), is the chief of state of Peru and represents the republic in official international matters. The presidential term is five years and incumbents cannot be re-elected for a second consecutive term. The President designates the Prime Minister and, with his advice, the rest of the Council of Ministers.

Congress (congresistas) consists of 130 members, who are elected for five year periods in office on a proportional representation basis. To be eligible, candidates must be Peruvian citizens, have passed their 35th birthday, and not have had their right to vote suspended.

The Judicial branch is headed by the Supreme Court of the Republic that has jurisdiction over the whole nation. The second hierarchic level is made up of the Superior Courts which have jurisdiction over an entire Judicial District which are more or less synonymous to the 25 Regions or Departments of Peru. There are 28 Judicial Districts. The third hierarchic level is formed by the Courts of First Instance (trial court), which have jurisdiction over each province. The fourth and lowest hierarchic level of the Peruvian Judicial Power, are the Courts of Peace who only have jurisdiction over a single district.

Peruvian foreign relations have been dominated by border conflicts with neighbouring countries, most of which were settled during the 20th century. There is still an ongoing dispute with Chile over maritime limits in the Pacific Ocean. Peru is an active member of several regional blocs and one of the founders of the Andean Community of Nations. It is also a participant in international organisations such as the Organisation of American States and the United Nations. The Peruvian military is composed of an army, a navy and an air force; its primary mission is to safeguard the independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity of the country. The armed forces are subordinate to the Ministry of Defence and to the President as Commander-in-Chief. Conscription was abolished in 1999 and replaced by voluntary military service.


Country name : conventional long form: Republic of Peru

conventional short form: Peru

local long form: Republica del Peru

local short form: Peru
Government type : constitutional republic
Capital : name: Lima

geographic coordinates: 12 03 S, 77 03 W

time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions : 25 regions (regiones, singular - region) and 1 province* (provincia); Amazonas, Ancash, Apurimac, Arequipa, Ayacucho, Cajamarca, Callao, Cusco, Huancavelica, Huanuco, Ica, Junin, La Libertad, Lambayeque, Lima, Lima*, Loreto, Madre de Dios, Moquegua, Pasco, Piura, Puno, San Martin, Tacna, Tumbes, Ucayali

note: Callao, the largest port in Peru, is also referred to as a constitutional province, the only province of the the Callao region
Independence : 28 July 1821 (from Spain)
National holiday : Independence Day, 28 July (1821)
Constitution : 29 December 1993
Legal system : civil law system
International law organisation participation : accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
Suffrage : 18 years of age; universal and compulsory until the age of 70
Executive branch : chief of state: President Ollanta Humala Tasso (since 28 July 2011); First Vice President Marisol Espinoza Cruz (since 28 July 2011); Second Vice President (vacant); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Ollanta Humala Tasso (since 28 July 2011); First Vice President Marisol Espinoza Cruz (since 28 July 2011); Second Vice President (vacant)

note: Prime Minister Juan Federico Jimenez Mayor (since 23 July 2012) does not exercise executive power; this power rests with the president

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president

elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for non-consecutive re-election); presidential and congressional elections last held on 10 April 2011 with run-off election held on 6 June 2011 (next to be held in April 2016)

election results: Ollanta Humala Tasso elected president in run-off election; percent of vote - Ollanta Humala Tasso 51.5%, Keiko Fujimori Higuchi 48.5%
Legislative branch : unicameral Congress of the Republic of Peru or Congreso de la Republica del Peru (130 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

elections: last held on 10 April 2011 (next to be held in April 2016)

election results: percent of vote by party - Gana Peru 25.3%, Fuerza 2011 23%, PP 14.8%, Alliance for Great Change 14.4%, National Solidarity 10.2%, Peruvian Aprista Party 6.4%, other 5.9%; seats by party - Gana Peru 47, Fuerza 2011 37, PP 21, Alliance for Great Change 12, National Solidarity 9, Peruvian Aprista Party 4; note - defections by members of National Assembly are commonplace, resulting in frequent changes in the numbers of seats held by the various parties
Judicial branch : highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of 16 judges and divided into civil, criminal, and constitutional-social sectors)

judge selection and term of office: justices proposed by the National Council of the Judiciary or National Judicial Council (a 7-member independent body), nominated by the president, and confirmed by the Congress (all appointments reviewed by the Council every 7 years; justices appointed for life or until age 70

subordinate courts: Court of Constitutional Guarantees; Superior Courts or Cortes Superiores; specialised civil, criminal, and mixed courts; two types of peace courts in which professional judges and selected members of the local communities preside
Political parties and leaders : Alliance for Great Change (Alianza por el Gran Cambio) (a coalition of the Alliance for Progress, Humanist Party, National Restoration Party, and Popular Christian Party) [Pedro Pablo Kuczynski];

Fuerza 2011 [Keiko Fujimori Higuchi];

Gana Peru (a coalition of Lima Para Todos, Peruvian Communist Party, Peruvian Nationalist Party, and Peruvian Socialist Party) [Ollanta Humala Tasso];

National Solidarity (Solidaridad Nacional) or SN (a coalition of Cambio 90, Siempre Unidos, Todos por el Peru, and Union for Peru or UPP) [Luis Castaneda Lossio]

Peru Posible or PP (a coalition of Accion Popular and Somos Peru) [Alejandro TOLEDO Manrique]

Peruvian Aprista Party (Partido Aprista Peruano) or PAP [Alan GARCIA Perez] (also referred to by its original name Alianza Popular Revolucionaria Americana or APRA)
Political pressure groups and leaders : General Workers Confederation of Peru (Confederacion General de Trabajadores del Peru) or CGTP [Mario Huaman];

Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso) or SL [Abimael Guzman Reynoso (imprisoned), Victor Quispe Palomino (top leader at-large)] (leftist guerilla group)
Diplomatic representation in the US : chief of mission: Ambassador Harold Winston Forsyth Mejia (since 29 August 2011)

chancery: 1700 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036

telephone: [1] (202) 833-9860 through 9869

fax: [1] (202) 659-8124

consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Dallas, Denver, Hartford (CT), Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Paterson (NJ), San Francisco
Diplomatic representation from the US : chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Michael J. Fitzpatrick (since 20 September 2013)

embassy: Avenida La Encalada, Cuadra 17 s/n, Surco, Lima 33

mailing address: P. O. Box 1995, Lima 1; American Embassy (Lima), APO AA 34031-5000

telephone: [51] (1) 618-2000

fax: [51] (1) 618-2397
Flag description : three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), white and red with the coat of arms centred in the white band; the coat of arms features a shield bearing a vicuna, cinchona tree (the source of quinine), and a yellow cornucopia spilling out gold coins, all framed by a green wreath
National symbol(s)


vicuna (a camelid related to the llama)
National anthem


name: "Himno Nacional del Peru" (National Anthem of Peru)

lyrics/music: Jose De La Torre Ugarte/Jose Bernardo Alzedo

note: adopted 1822; the song won a national contest for an anthem






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